The Financial Times Graphics team created a Visual Vocabulary to help people find the “best” chart for the situation. In one amazing image, they organize the charts by situations/what you want to visualize: deviation, correlation, ranking, distribution, change over time, magnitude, part-to-whole, spatial and flow.
This resource is actually a whole lot more than one beautiful image. It provides a reading list, explanations of the different types of charts, and links to many real life examples. On top of that, if you’re trying to learn to use Tableau, this blog post shares examples of all these charts in an interactive tableau version. Enjoy!